Balech (1976: 15, fig. 5)
Gymnodinium baccatum auct. non Balech (1965), sensu Hada (1970: 13, fig. 8)
South of the Polar Front (Balech, 1976); coastal waters near Syowa Station, East Antarctica (Hada, 1970).
These are unarmoured, solitary or chain-forming cells. The cingulum is usually equatorial or premedian, with or without descending (left) displacement; if displaced, then less than 20% of cell length (cf. Gyrodinium) (Steidinger & Tangen, 1997). See Larsen (1994, 1996) for a discussion of the separation of Gymnodinium and Gyrodinium. Individual species are differentiated by their size, shape and contours, chain formation, the occurrence and shape of the apical groove, the presence of striae, ribs or furrows, cingulum premedian, median or postmedian, the displacement of the cingulum, the extent to which the sulcus extends onto the epitheca, the presence of chloroplasts, lateral compression of the body and colour (Steidinger & Tangen, 1997).