(Hada) Balech (1975: 15)
Exuviaella antarctica Hada (1970: 10, fig. 3)
Exuviaella sp., Balech & El-Sayed (1965: 112, pl. 3, fig. 55)
Balech (1976: 27, fig. 16)
Cells ovate, flattened, c. 15–22 µm long, c. 15–25 µm diameter. Theca smooth, with 2 short anterior projections; cell surface sparsely covered with small pores. Chloroplasts present.
Southern Ocean, coastal regions to north of the Polar Front (Balech, 1975); KERFIX, 50°40’S 68°25’E, Southern Ocean (Kopczyńska et al., 1998); sea-ice near Davis Station, East Antarctica (Archer et al., 1996a, as Exuviaella antarctica); Admiralty Bay, King George I., Antarctic Peninsula (Brandini, 1993).
Three species, P. antarcticum, P. balticum and P. compressum, have been reported from Antarctic waters. Prorocentrum is characterised by small, simple, rounded to elliptical cells and a cell wall of only 2 thecal plates. Dodge & Bibby (1973), Sournia (1986) and other authors placed Exuviaella in synonymy with Prorocentrum.
Prorocentrum antarcticum is distinguished from P. compressum by its smaller size and fewer pores. It has only been observed as a minor component of Southern Ocean dinoflagellate communities. Estrada & Delgado (1990) reported P. cf. antarcticum from the Weddell Sea.
Dodge (1975: 107, fig. 1A) considered Exuviaella antarctica Hada to be synonymous with P. aporum (J.Schiller) J.D.Dodge, but the latter is not a widely accepted combination.