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Authority

(Balech) Balech (1974: 59)

Class

Dinophyceae

Order

Peridinales

Family

Protoperidiniaceae

Basionym

Peridinium bellulum Balech (1971: 127, pl. 23, figs 407–411)

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Synonyms

N/A

Additional References

Balech (1976: 67, fig. 49)

Description

Cells transversely ellipsoidal, 25–36 µm long (excluding apical horn and antapical spines), 34–42 µm overall, 28–36 µm diameter. Apical horn conical, 3 µm long, expanded at the tip. Hypotheca with 2 antapical spines set rather far apart, c. 7 µm long; left antapical spine slightly shorter that the right. Cingulum 5 µm wide, non-incised, displaced by 1 cingular width; cingular lists greatly reduced, ribbed. Sulcus extending slightly into epitheca, widening posteriorly towards antapex. Tabulation 1pa, 4', 3a, 7'', 6c, 5''', 1p, 1''''. Plate configuration: metaform quadra.

Distribution

Southern Ocean, 62°S, south of Australia; type locality, Drake Passage (Balech, 1971); Ross Sea (Watanabe, 1982); Bransfield Strait (Priddle, 1985); Southern Ocean, near South Georgia (Dodge & Priddle, 1987); Terra Nova Bay, Ross Sea (Andreoli et al., 1995).

Comments

Protoperidinium is by far the most diverse dinoflagellate genus in Antarctic waters. Approx-imately 40 species have been recorded, most of which are endemic. While a number of taxa, e.g. P. antarcticum, are readily identifiable by their gross morphology, it is usually necessary to obtain good SEM images to determine the tabulation pattern essential for accurate identification. For most species, identification is based on the shape and configuration of the first apical plate (1') and the second intercalary plate (2a). Table 3.1 summarises the plate configuration of Antarctic Protoperidinium species.
Balech (1974) recognised three subgenera, Minusculum, Archaeoperidinium and Protoperid-inium. Subgenus Minusculum, with only a single Antarctic species, P. defectum, is characterised by having 6 precingular plates of which 6'' is especially large. Only 2 anterior, intercalary plates are present.
Subgenus Archaeoperidinium, represented by two Antarctic species, has 7 precingular plates but only 2 anterior, intercalary plates.
Most Antarctic species are referrable to subgenus Protoperidinium which is characterised by 7 precingular plates and 3 anterior, intercalary plates. Primary taxonomic differentiation is based on the shape of the first apical plate, which can be surrounded by 4 (orthoform), 5 (metaform) or 6 (paraform) other plates (Fig. 3.18). The next most significant attribute is the shape of the second anterior, intercalary plate which, once again, can be in contact with 4 (quadra), 5 (penta) or 6 (hexa) surrounding plates (Fig. 3.18). For accurate identification, it is usually essential to determine the form of these two plates, this requiring both a dorsal and ventral view or an apical view. The most common plate configuration among the Antarctic species is metaform quadra (Table 3.1).

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