(Balech) Balech (1974: 53)








Peridinium defectum Balech, in Balech & El-Sayed (1965: 118, pl. 3, figs 45–50)




Additional References

Balech (1976: 42, fig. 29), Andreoli et al. (1995: 473)


Cells subspherical, 14–29 µm long (excluding horns), 15–25 µm diameter. Cell surface ornamented with large pores that are mostly concentrated around the cingulum. Epitheca with a well-developed apical horn 3.6–10 µm long. Hypotheca with 2 well-developed narrow antapical spiness 1.3–10 µm long; left spine always longer than the right.


Type locality, Weddell Sea (Balech & El-Sayed, 1965); Widespread in the Antarctic; Terra Nova Bay (Andreoli et al., 1995).


A member of subg. Archaeoperidium (Balech, 1976), the small size, long apical and antapical horns, and the very large 6'' plate are very distinctive. Protoperidinium defectum resembles P. minusculum Pavill. from Northern Hemisphere waters.

Protoperidinium is by far the most diverse dinoflagellate genus in Antarctic waters. Approx-imately 40 species have been recorded, most of which are endemic. While a number of taxa, e.g. P. antarcticum, are readily identifiable by their gross morphology, it is usually necessary to obtain good SEM images to determine the tabulation pattern essential for accurate identification. For most species, identification is based on the shape and configuration of the first apical plate (1') and the second intercalary plate (2a). Table 3.1 summarises the plate configuration of Antarctic Protoperidinium species.
Balech (1974) recognised three subgenera, Minusculum, Archaeoperidinium and Protoperid-inium. Subgenus Minusculum, with only a single Antarctic species, P. defectum, is characterised by having 6 precingular plates of which 6'' is especially large. Only 2 anterior, intercalary plates are present.
Subgenus Archaeoperidinium, represented by two Antarctic species, has 7 precingular plates but only 2 anterior, intercalary plates.
Most Antarctic species are referrable to subgenus Protoperidinium which is characterised by 7 precingular plates and 3 anterior, intercalary plates. Primary taxonomic differentiation is based on the shape of the first apical plate, which can be surrounded by 4 (orthoform), 5 (metaform) or 6 (paraform) other plates (Fig. 3.18). The next most significant attribute is the shape of the second anterior, intercalary plate which, once again, can be in contact with 4 (quadra), 5 (penta) or 6 (hexa) surrounding plates (Fig. 3.18). For accurate identification, it is usually essential to determine the form of these two plates, this requiring both a dorsal and ventral view or an apical view. The most common plate configuration among the Antarctic species is metaform quadra (Table 3.1).