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Authority

(Balech) Balech (1974: 62)

Class

Dinophyceae

Order

Peridinales

Family

Protoperidiniaceae

Basionym

Peridinium incognitum Balech (1959: 24, pl. 2, figs 43–45)

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Synonyms

N/A

Additional References

Balech (1976: 77, fig. 56)

Description

Cells subspherical, c. 40 µm long (excluding apical horn and antapical spines), c. 38 µm diameter. Thecal surfaces strongly reticulated and with scattered pores; epitheca with convex sides and a short stout apical horn supported by a septa along the apical plate boundaries; hypotheca convex, with 2 divergent antapical spines 6 µm long, with membranes. Cingulum 5 µm wide, slightly incised and displaced, but without an overhang; cingular lists broad, regularly ribbed. Sulcus extending anteriorly barely into epitheca but posteriorly into hypotheca to antapex; sulcal lists well developed. Tabulation 1pa, 4', 3a, 7'', 6c, 5''', 1p, 1'''' (2a plate is very large). Plate configuration: metaform penta.

Distribution

Southern Ocean, 56–60°S, south of Australia; type locality, Antarctic Peninsula (Balech, 1959); Antarctic and sub-Antarctic waters (Balech, 1976); Southern Ocean, near South Georgia (Dodge & Priddle, 1987); Ross Sea (Watanabe, 1982).

Comments

Protoperidinium is by far the most diverse dinoflagellate genus in Antarctic waters. Approx-imately 40 species have been recorded, most of which are endemic. While a number of taxa, e.g. P. antarcticum, are readily identifiable by their gross morphology, it is usually necessary to obtain good SEM images to determine the tabulation pattern essential for accurate identification. For most species, identification is based on the shape and configuration of the first apical plate (1') and the second intercalary plate (2a). Table 3.1 summarises the plate configuration of Antarctic Protoperidinium species.
Balech (1974) recognised three subgenera, Minusculum, Archaeoperidinium and Protoperid-inium. Subgenus Minusculum, with only a single Antarctic species, P. defectum, is characterised by having 6 precingular plates of which 6'' is especially large. Only 2 anterior, intercalary plates are present.
Subgenus Archaeoperidinium, represented by two Antarctic species, has 7 precingular plates but only 2 anterior, intercalary plates.
Most Antarctic species are referrable to subgenus Protoperidinium which is characterised by 7 precingular plates and 3 anterior, intercalary plates. Primary taxonomic differentiation is based on the shape of the first apical plate, which can be surrounded by 4 (orthoform), 5 (metaform) or 6 (paraform) other plates (Fig. 3.18). The next most significant attribute is the shape of the second anterior, intercalary plate which, once again, can be in contact with 4 (quadra), 5 (penta) or 6 (hexa) surrounding plates (Fig. 3.18). For accurate identification, it is usually essential to determine the form of these two plates, this requiring both a dorsal and ventral view or an apical view. The most common plate configuration among the Antarctic species is metaform quadra (Table 3.1).

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