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Authority

(Balech) Balech (1974: 57)

Class

Dinophyceae

Order

Peridinales

Family

Protoperidiniaceae

Basionym

Peridinium latistriatum Balech (1958a: 86, pl. 4, figs 66–80)

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Synonyms

Peridinium subinerme auct. non Paulsen (1904), sensu Peters (1928: 52, fig. 15) pro parte

Additional References

Balech (1976: 50, fig. 35)

Description

Cells pentagonal, 30–112 µm long, 30–97 µm diameter. Thecal surfaces with pores, reticulations and minute spines. Epitheca with slightly convex sides; apical horn greatly reduced, with an apical pore. Hypotheca rounded, with greatly reduced horns. Cingulum 4 µm wide, incised, equatorial, slightly displaced; surface with faint reticulations and pores; cingular lists narrow, ribbed. Sulcus barely extending into epitheca, but broadening posteriorly into hypotheca; sulcal lists very narrow. Tabulation 1pa, 4', 3a, 7'', 6c, 5''', 1p, 1''''. Plate configuration: orthoform quadra. Growth bands to 5 µm wide, usually present between plates.

Distribution

Southern Ocean, 51–62°S, south of Australia; type locality, Antarctic Peninsula (Balech, 1958a); Southern Ocean, near South Georgia (Dodge & Priddle, 1987).

Comments

Specimens found in the Southern Ocean, south of Australia were considerably smaller than those reported by Balech, and they had minute spines on the thecal surfaces.

Protoperidinium is by far the most diverse dinoflagellate genus in Antarctic waters. Approx-imately 40 species have been recorded, most of which are endemic. While a number of taxa, e.g. P. antarcticum, are readily identifiable by their gross morphology, it is usually necessary to obtain good SEM images to determine the tabulation pattern essential for accurate identification. For most species, identification is based on the shape and configuration of the first apical plate (1') and the second intercalary plate (2a). Table 3.1 summarises the plate configuration of Antarctic Protoperidinium species.
Balech (1974) recognised three subgenera, Minusculum, Archaeoperidinium and Protoperid-inium. Subgenus Minusculum, with only a single Antarctic species, P. defectum, is characterised by having 6 precingular plates of which 6'' is especially large. Only 2 anterior, intercalary plates are present.
Subgenus Archaeoperidinium, represented by two Antarctic species, has 7 precingular plates but only 2 anterior, intercalary plates.
Most Antarctic species are referrable to subgenus Protoperidinium which is characterised by 7 precingular plates and 3 anterior, intercalary plates. Primary taxonomic differentiation is based on the shape of the first apical plate, which can be surrounded by 4 (orthoform), 5 (metaform) or 6 (paraform) other plates (Fig. 3.18). The next most significant attribute is the shape of the second anterior, intercalary plate which, once again, can be in contact with 4 (quadra), 5 (penta) or 6 (hexa) surrounding plates (Fig. 3.18). For accurate identification, it is usually essential to determine the form of these two plates, this requiring both a dorsal and ventral view or an apical view. The most common plate configuration among the Antarctic species is metaform quadra (Table 3.1).

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