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Authority

(Balech) Balech (1974: 59)

Class

Dinophyceae

Order

Peridinales

Family

Protoperidiniaceae

Basionym

Peridinium rosaceum Balech (1958a: 87, pl. 4, figs 81–85, 88–91)

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Synonyms

N/A

Additional References

Balech (1976: 50, fig. 36)

Description

Cells kite-shaped, with the epitheca and hypotheca having straight sides, 50–80 µm long, 48–69 µm diameter. Thecal surfaces reticulate, with scattered pores; epithecal sides meet at the apical pore with no apparent apical horn; hypotheca with an almost flat base and no antapical horns or spines. Cingulum relatively wide (5 µm), excavated and faintly reticulated; cingular lists narrow. Sulcus extending only slightly into the epitheca, round in shape, increasing in width posteriorly; sulcal lists ribbed, narrow. Sutures comparatively wide (2 µm), with striae. Tabulation 1pa, 4', 3a, 7'', 6c, 5''', 1p, 1''''. Plate configuration: orthoform hexa.

Distribution

Type locality, Terre Adélie (Balech, 1958a); Southern Ocean, near South Georgia (Dodge & Priddle, 1987); Ross Sea (Watanabe, 1982).

Comments

Protoperidinium is by far the most diverse dinoflagellate genus in Antarctic waters. Approx-imately 40 species have been recorded, most of which are endemic. While a number of taxa, e.g. P. antarcticum, are readily identifiable by their gross morphology, it is usually necessary to obtain good SEM images to determine the tabulation pattern essential for accurate identification. For most species, identification is based on the shape and configuration of the first apical plate (1') and the second intercalary plate (2a). Table 3.1 summarises the plate configuration of Antarctic Protoperidinium species.
Balech (1974) recognised three subgenera, Minusculum, Archaeoperidinium and Protoperid-inium. Subgenus Minusculum, with only a single Antarctic species, P. defectum, is characterised by having 6 precingular plates of which 6'' is especially large. Only 2 anterior, intercalary plates are present.
Subgenus Archaeoperidinium, represented by two Antarctic species, has 7 precingular plates but only 2 anterior, intercalary plates.
Most Antarctic species are referrable to subgenus Protoperidinium which is characterised by 7 precingular plates and 3 anterior, intercalary plates. Primary taxonomic differentiation is based on the shape of the first apical plate, which can be surrounded by 4 (orthoform), 5 (metaform) or 6 (paraform) other plates (Fig. 3.18). The next most significant attribute is the shape of the second anterior, intercalary plate which, once again, can be in contact with 4 (quadra), 5 (penta) or 6 (hexa) surrounding plates (Fig. 3.18). For accurate identification, it is usually essential to determine the form of these two plates, this requiring both a dorsal and ventral view or an apical view. The most common plate configuration among the Antarctic species is metaform quadra (Table 3.1).

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